Crude oil pollution treatment project
This project’s purpose is to optimize a Nano-CarboScavenger (NCS), a particle designed to adsorb oil and remove it from water. In Lead Investigator Dipanjan Pan’s words:
“As the demand for petroleum continues to rise, we will see an increase in petroleum transportation traffic — which will inevitably lead to an increase in chances for aqueous crude oil spills, land spills, and fracking byproduct-based pollution. These spills threaten our environment, and finding ways to clean them up has become a grand world challenge.
“But thus far, we lack efficient and safe cleanup methods for oil and petroleum spills. Typically, oil spills can affect animals and plant life in two ways: from the detrimental effect of the oil itself, and from the treatment for cleanup operations. Addressing both these challenges can help us minimize overall impacts to the ecosystem and facilitate a much quicker recovery.
“In response to this ecological threat, my team has developed a highly efficient, environmentally friendly, bio-digestible, and commercially amenable powder dispersant. This tiny, nanometer-sized agent is uniquely “dual functioning” — for simultaneous collection and removal of crude oil and petroleum distillates with remarkable efficiency. More importantly, this agent does not leave any residual footprint because it is degraded in the environment and in living systems — and any incidental biological uptake is not harmful to living organisms.
“Our reusable Nano-CarboScavenger powder dispersion leads to clumping and accumulates the oil for simple recovery by nets or booms. That makes our approach distinctly different from current approaches and introduces an ecologically compliant strategy for oil spill remediation.
“At the University of Illinois, this multidisciplinary project employs bioengineers, materials scientists, and analytical chemists to help solve a prevalent issue affecting the Earth’s environment.”
PI Dipanjan Pan offers an update two years after iSEE funded his project …
- The team evaluated the potential of a second Nano-CarboScavenger (NCS) material to remove oil dissolved in seawater. As part of this, the following specific tasks were undertaken:
- Oil-contaminated seawater samples were treated with NCS for six time point measurements over the duration of eight days.
- Triplicate measurements of total organic carbon (TOC), fluorescence spectroscopy (EEM), and Acute Toxicity by MicroTox were performed at each time point.
- The team extracted non-polar organics at select time points and analyzed extracts by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS).
- Based on the studies, the following findings were made:
- Addition of NCS material to seawater with and without contamination increased the dissolved total organic carbon (TOC) contained in the water fraction.
- The team confirmed that addition of NCS material to contaminated seawater had no significant effect on acute toxicity of the water fraction as determined by MicroTox. Nor did addition of NCS material to seawater alone.
- The addition of NCS material to contaminated seawater reduced the fluorescence intensities of the three components in the dissolved water fraction. The maximum difference occurred on Day 3.
- Quantitatively, the addition of NCS material to oil contaminated seawater shows a ~40% reduction in the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content in the dissolved water fraction.
- Using the NCS platform technology, a novel “smart water purification system” for remediation of pharmaceuticals, hormones, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and other contaminants was also developed. Several batches of second-generation NCS samples were successfully tested in Wei Zhang’s lab at the Illinois Sustainable Technology Center for their activity in removing pharmaceuticals.
- “We also developed mineral-rich algal nanoparticles from biomass (algae) for biomedical application,” Pan said. “Spheroidal nanoparticles of algal (phytonic) origin were synthesized comprising carbonaceous architectures and surface-rich oxygenated functional groups.” In two back-to-back publications in ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces (see publications below), the team reported that nanoparticles derived from algal biomass exhibit intrinsic anti-migratory properties against cancer likely due to the rich abundance of α-amino acids.
The NCS powder simultaneously diffuses oil floating on the water’s surface for natural breakdown and absorbs oil and traps it for easy removal. Pan recently reported results in an article in Nature Publishing, a publication of Scientific Reports. Most methods for oil cleanup today rely on releasing toxic chemicals into the ecosystem, but the NCS particle leaves fish and other aquatic life, as well as humans, unharmed.
In laboratory tests, researchers removed more than 80 percent of oil contamination they introduced into water samples by sprinkling NCS powder across the surface of the water and scooping out clumped oil. The total cleaning effect will be even higher in natural bodies of water, where millions of microorganisms can gobble up oil molecules NCS particles disperse into the water.
PI Dipanjan Pan reports that the team is “totally in line with our proposed timeline for reaching all the milestones.” Specifically …
- The team’s manuscript on Nano-CarboScavengers rehabilitating petroleum-contaminated water has been reviewed twice with Nature Communications, and another revised version is ready to be submitted.
- Significant research progress has been made — and key data collected — to take the project beyond the level of proof of concept. New student members have been added to the team (see those updates below).
- And new research directions have been identified — and progress has been made in those directions. They include:
- “Utilizing our platform technology based on carbon nanoparticles, we are proposing a novel ‘smart water purification system’ for remediation of pharmaceuticals, hormones, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and other contaminants,” Pan said.
- A second project is looking at production of mineral-rich algal nanoparticles from biomass (algae) for agricultural, biomedical and environmental (metal, e.g. mercury scavenging) application.
- “A third spinoff project is looking at a self-‘reproducing’ bacterial-nano-enzyme architecture for novel solution of biofuel production,” he said.
Principal Investigators and co-PIs
- Dipanjan Pan, Assistant Professor of Bioengineering (in team photo).His departmental page.His Laboratory for Materials in Medicine page. His Beckman Institute page.
- B.K. Sharma, Senior Research Engineer at the Illinois Sustainable Technology Center (ISTC) (in team photo). His ISTC page.
- John Scott, Senior Analytical Chemist at ISTC (right). His ISTC page.
- Santosh Misra, iSEE Postdoctoral Researcher in Bioengineering (in team photo). His departmental page. His Laboratory for Materials in Medicine page. Read more about Santosh and his work >>>
- Indu Tripathi, Postdoctoral Visiting Scholar in Bioengineering (in team photo). Her Pan Laboratory page.
- Enrique Daza, M.S. Candidate in Bioengineering and M.B.A. Candidate (right). His departmental page. His Laboratory for Materials in Medicine page. Read more about Enrique and his work >>>
- Fatemeh Ostadhossein, M.S. Candidate in Bioengineering (in team photo). Her Laboratory for Materials in Medicine page.
- Zhaolu Wang, M.S. Candidate in Bioengineering (in team photo).
- Wei Zhang, Senior Research Scientist, Illinois Sustainable Technology Center (ISTC)
- Yao Shi, Professor of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Zhejiang University, China
- Yi He, Associate Professor of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Zhejiang University, China
Publications & Presentations
(iSEE project members’ names in bold)
- Publication: “α-Amino Acid Rich Photo-phytonic Nanoparticles of Algal Origin Serendipitously Reveals Anti-migratory Property against Cancer.” Misra, S.K.; Schwartz-Duval, A.S.; Ostadhossein, F.; Daza, E.A.; Saldivar, Z.M.; Sharma B.K.; Pan D. American Chemical Society Applied Materials & Interfaces (June 2017).
- Publication: “Nanosalina: A Tale of Saline-Loving Algae from the Lake’s Agony to Cancer Therapy.” Ostadhossein, F.; Misra, S.K.; Schwartz-Duval, A.S.; Sharma B.K.; Pan D. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces (March 2017).
- Presentation: First place (oral), Daza, E., and Misra, S., Materials Research Lab (2015-16).
- Presentation: Second place (poster), Daza, E., and Misra, S., Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology Poster Symposium in the Micro and Nanotechnology Lab (2015-16).
- Presentation: First place (poster), Daza, E., and Misra, S., Bioengineering Days Poster Symposium in the Digital Computer Lab (2015-16).
- Presentation: First place (poster), Daza, E., and Misra, S., Annual Society of Postdoctoral Scholars Poster Symposium in the Beckman Institute (2015-16).
- Presentation: Postdoctoral soft materials seminar talk, Misra, S. (2015-16)